My project seeks to analyze the figure of the Jew as a constitutive ingredient of post-Holocaust German political secularism and secularity. Its key-questions are: How do certain forms of subjugation live on in a liberal democracy, either with Jewish communities, or also with Muslims in Europe? How do previous forms of racialization of Jews take new shape with Muslims? How does the state’s (political, legal) recognition and inclusion of “religions” fail to ensure political equality, and instead reifies political inequality? Throughout, I seek to explore the resources available in the Jewish and Islamic discursive tradition in order to imagine forms of political organization and modes of living together that surpass secular liberalism and nationalism, that resist quests for translatability and transparency, as well as notions of agency that center the self-realization of the liberal individual. While the project’s focus is on post-unification Germany, it participates in the broader question about the co-constitutive relation of the modern notion of the European subject and its racial-religious Others.